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What To Do When You're Stopped By Police - The ACLU & Elon James White

What To Do When You're Stopped By Police - The ACLU & Elon James White

Know Anyone Who Thinks Racial Profiling Is Exaggerated? Watch This, And Tell Me When Your Jaw Drops.

This video clearly demonstrates how racist America is as a country and how far we have to go to become a country that is civilized and actually values equal justice. We must not rest until this goal is achieved. I do not want my great grandchildren to live in a country like we have today. I wish for them to live in a country where differences of race and culture are not ignored but valued as a part of what makes America great.

Wednesday, May 18, 2022

‘That’s not the devil. That’s America.’ - The Washington Post

‘That’s not the devil. That’s America.’

Ahead of President Biden’s visit, local activists share their hopes for how they’d like to see the administration help the community. (Video: Zoeann Murphy, Alice Li/The Washington Post, Photo: Libby March for The Washington Post/The Washington Post)

BUFFALO — Less than 24 hours after a gunman stormed the grocery store where Tony Marshall worked for years, killing 10, Marshall was back at the Tops.

He flipped hot dogs on a grill positioned just outside the caution-tape perimeter, handing them out to mourners and passersby. As he worked, he wore a red shirt with a Tops Friendly Markets logo. “It’s a community store,” said Marshall, 59. “It’s meant everything to us.”

That was a sentiment shared by many in this mostly Black section of the city. For residents, the Tops was more than just a source of food and medicine. In a neighborhood with few stores or public spaces, the grocery store was a site for community events and giveaways, a hangout spot and meeting place.

“It was more than a store. It was a place where you could meet up with a friend, a relative, a girlfriend,” said Jerome Bridges, another Tops employee who survived the attack by barricading himself and several others in a conference room. “A place to hang out and shop and have a good conversation while you’re doing it.”

Many East Side residents said they would sometimes spend their leisure hours in the Tops parking lot, having long conversations with folks who seemed like complete strangers — strangers, that is, until they found out that they live a block apart from each other, or are extended family members, or frequent the same restaurant.

That sense of community was necessary, Marshall said, as a form of protection in a city where many Black people have faced a lifetime of discrimination and abuse.

Buffalo is the seventh-most segregated city in the country for Black Americans, according to a Brookings Institution report. The Black population had a median household income of $28,320 in 2019, according to a University of Buffalo report, with a 31 percent poverty rate. White residents had a $49,156 income and a 9.1 percent poverty rate.

“I’m crazy about Buffalo, I love it here; it can be a beautiful city,” said Regina Williams, 59, sitting in a car with her daughter and granddaughter near the Tops. But “it’s so segregated, they need to do something about it. They ain’t doing nothing about it. Nothing.”

In the first few days after the shooting, many residents here saw the horrific act of racial violence as one of many injustices threaded through their lives, and sometimes across generations.

Even the fact that the East Side has such a concentration of Black people is itself the result of discriminatory practices, residents said. And it was that segregation that turned the neighborhood into a target for the gunman, suspected to be an 18-year-old who espoused racist and white supremacist views.

“Somebody that is four hours away knows where to come to target Black people. You don’t even live in this community but you know where to come to get all Black people. That’s sad,” said Shirley Hart, carrying a plate with one of Marshall’s freshly grilled hot dogs. “It’s the experience of the Black person in America. We all deal with it, in some facet or another. It may not be to this extent on our hands, but we experience it.”

Buffalo’s downtown is on its West Side, hugging the Niagara River that separates New York from Canada. There are lush green parks with benches or art inside them. The streets are smooth. The trees are large and abundant.

But as you drive farther out, and especially once you hit Main Street, the scenery begins to change. The roads get rougher. The trees are fewer. Empty lots appear more frequently. Corner shops are scattered about, but there are also boarded-up shops.

Jefferson Avenue, on Buffalo’s East Side, is the liveliest strip in the area. The library, radio stations, barbershops and cigar shops are all on or near the street. So is the Tops.

The grocery store was built in 2003 after a sustained campaign from the community. Before it opened, neighbors had few supermarket options.

“Everybody goes to Tops because it’s in the ‘hood,” said Tara “Judy” Clark, 58, standing outside the Buffalo Community Fridge food pantry. She carried a tote bag of produce she had just picked up at the site.

James Baldwin nodded, adding that on Buffalo’s East Side there are few public parks or other spaces to gather, so the locals get to know each other at the Tops. And many residents avoid driving because they are afraid of the police, said Baldwin, 60.

“We like to stick close because we get pulled over if we venture out,” he said.

He said even just being outside on a street corner — as he was doing in that moment, with Clark nearby — makes him nervous because it exposes him to the police who patrol the area. You never know when an officer might come up and “make an issue out of it,” Baldwin said.

“The only time we can enjoy ourselves, or meet other people, is going into stores,” Clark said. Now, she is afraid to go, worried that a shooter might once again target her community.

“The devil was really, really busy in that man,” she said.

Baldwin quickly replied: “That’s not the devil. That’s America. They made him, they brought him up, they put him there.”

Buffalo’s large and vibrant Black community can trace its roots back to the early and mid-1900s, when Black people fleeing the racist violence of the South came to Buffalo as part of the Great Migration. They were attracted to its tranquility, the freedom it offered from Jim Crow laws, and the abundance of working-class jobs. Buffalo was once one of the largest hubs for producing steel and milling flour, and it was a railroad center.

As the Black community grew, redlining, urban renewal and other practices relegated it to the East Side, which became the beating heart of Black life in Buffalo. It has “lots of cultural history that goes way, way back, mostly focused around the African American community,” said Carl Nightingale, a professor of Buffalo history. “Full of all kinds of wonderful blues clubs, jazz clubs, hip-hop clubs, barbecue joints, soul food places.”

Since then, the community has been fighting to achieve recognition and equal status. But the setbacks have been numerous.

In 1958, officials built the Kensington Expressway, a highway project that effectively cut the neighborhood off from the rest of the city. Many of the mom-and-pop corner stores and boutiques that relied on the traffic to and from downtown for business had to shut their doors.

In 1972, the Buffalo Bills moved from the East Side to the suburbs. Several businesses that served the football stadium’s visitors were forced to close.

To this day, if you drive along the roads that were once heavily traveled by city commuters, the old structures remain — boarded-up storefronts and abandoned homes. Long, empty city blocks filled with grass and trash.

The latest battle is gentrification. Some locals said the government is luring luxury apartments and high-rises to the city’s downtown, which is causing home prices to soar around the city. East Side residents worry that they will be priced out of their own neighborhood.

“They building it up in the community, and the people living in the community can’t even afford it,” said Angela Stewart, 61, a pastor who grew up on the East Side but no longer lives there. “I think that’s kind of crazy. How are they ever supposed to get better if you’re going to treat them that way?”

Residents say police brutality is also a concern. Yvonne King, who lives close to the Tops, said she drives her 16-year-old son to and from school even though it’s only a few blocks, because she fears the police.

Despite the hardships, the community has blossomed in some ways.

In 2007, members of the East Side formed the Buffalo United Front to address the issues in their community, from policing to food insecurity and education.

In 2016, the East Side Bike Club came alive. Every Saturday, East Siders slip on neon T-shirts and ride bicycles — with donated ones for those who don’t have their own — across the city. As cars honk in support, the residents are able to see different parts of their community and learn a new way to exercise or transport themselves.

The club has workshops for residents to learn the rules of the road and how to fix their own bikes.

On Saturday, they’ll be at Martin Luther King Jr. Park at 9:30 a.m., riding around their East Side neighborhood.

They’ll pass the Tops that was once a source of community and food. They’ll mourn the people they lost and remember another East Side institution taken from them — this time, hopefully, only temporarily.

“This is America. The system wasn’t built for us, it was built on our backs,” Hart said. “It’s sad, but unfortunately we’re just used to it, and we deal with the hand we were dealt.”

‘That’s not the devil. That’s America.’ - The Washington Post

Tuesday, May 17, 2022

Fox News & GOP Pushed Replacement Theory | Baby Formula Shortage Reaches...

Biden condemns Buffalo mass shooting as 'terrorism' and white supremacy ...

Opinion | The Slaughter in Buffalo Hasn’t Quieted the Great Replacement Caucus - The New York Times

The Slaughter in Buffalo Hasn’t Quieted the Great Replacement Caucus

The mouths that roared.
Clockwise from top left: Jim Lo Scalzo/AFP via Getty Images; Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images; Drew Angerer/Getty Images; Bill Clark/CQ-Roll Call, Inc via Getty Images

"Sign up for the Jamelle Bouie newsletter, for Times subscribers only.  Join Jamelle Bouie as he shines a light on overlooked writing, culture and ideas from around the internet.

Make no mistake: The idea that apparently inspired a white supremacist who is accused of killing and injuring more than a dozen people at a supermarket in Buffalo — that nefarious elites are using immigration to “replace” white Americans with pliant foreigners — is virtually indistinguishable from mainstream Republican rhetoric.

“This administration wants complete open borders,” said Senator Ron Johnson of Wisconsin in an interview last month. “And you have to ask yourself, why? Is it really [that] they want to remake the demographics of America to ensure that they stay in power forever?”

“The media calls us racist for wanting to build Trump’s wall,” said J.D. Vance, the Republican nominee for the U.S. Senate in Ohio, in a campaign ad. “They censor us, but it doesn’t change the truth. Joe Biden’s open border is killing Ohioans, with more illegal drugs and more Democrat voters pouring into this country.”

Hours after the shooting, a Republican Senate candidate in Arizona, Blake Masters, said on Twitter that “The Democrats want open borders so they can bring in and amnesty tens of millions of illegal aliens — that’s their electoral strategy.” And on Monday, the No. 3 Republican in the House of Representatives, Elise Stefanik of New York, declared that it was a “FACT that DEMOCRATS have been explicitly pushing for amnesty for years — specifically for political and electoral purposes.”

Republican politicians aside, there’s also Tucker Carlson, whose Fox News program is a direct conduit for white nationalist ideas, including the idea of “the great replacement.” There are more than 400 episodes of his show, according to a recent Times investigation, in which Carlson has either amplified or promoted the theory that Democrats and other members of the liberal elite (like the billionaire philanthropist George Soros) are using immigration to replace the native-born majority with a new, foreign-born electorate.

The reason Joe Biden has not ended illegal immigration to the United States, Carlson charged in a monologue last year, is because he wants to “change the racial mix of the country” and “reduce the political power of people whose ancestors lived here, and dramatically increase the proportion of Americans newly arrived from the third world.” This policy, Carlson continued, is “sometimes called the great replacement — the replacement of legacy Americans, with more obedient people from faraway countries.”

The point of making the connection between this rhetoric and that of the accused shooter is not to say that Carlson or Republican politicians are directly responsible for the ideas in his manifesto or for the slaughter itself. But the shooting in Buffalo is only the latest in a series of mass shootings inspired by this particular racist conspiracy theory. In the United States, there have been at least two others: the 2018 Tree of Life synagogue shooting in Pittsburgh that killed 11 people and the 2019 shooting in El Paso, Texas that killed 23 people. And abroad, there was the shooting in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 2019 where a gunman attacked a mosque, killing 51 people. (The accused killer in Buffalo singled out the Christchurch shooter for praise in his manifesto.)

The Republican politicians and conservative media personalities who traffic in this rhetoric did not create the idea of the “great replacement,” but they have adopted it. They have chosen to swim in the same ideological waters as the people responsible for these shootings and have chosen to amplify the “great replacement” theory to the world even as it poisoned minds and produced violence.

It is clear that some of these politicians have made a cynical decision to adopt this rhetoric for the sake of gaining power. Six or seven years ago, Vance and Stefanik were critics of Donald Trump and the movement that put him in office. Stefanik condemned his rhetoric — “I think he was insulting to women,” she said in 2015 — while Vance once analogized Trumpism to a narcotic. “Trump is cultural heroin,” he wrote in 2016, “He makes some feel better for a bit. But he cannot fix what ails them, and one day they’ll realize it.” When Trump appeared to be a threat to their ambition, they stood against him. When it was became clear that they could not reach their goals without his assistance, they fell in line and bent the knee.

But in American politics, this rhetoric is not just a signal for politicians who want the support of Trump or a way for television hosts to find viewers and make money for themselves and the corporations that employ them. It serves a purpose.

We are living through a moment of social and political tumult. Our society is more than a little unsettled, and as a result there are many new opportunities for change and transformation. One way to try to foreclose the most expansive and progressive possibilities — to secure capital and hierarchy against equality and democracy — is to weaponize divisions and anxieties and received prejudices; to play to the fear of loss in hopes of overcoming a call for solidarity.

It’s not as if this comes out of nowhere. It would not be the first time in this country’s history that reactionaries fanned violence in order to win a favorable settlement for themselves.

Clockwise from top left: Ron Johnson; Tucker Carlson; J.D. Vance; Elise Stefanik.
Clockwise from top left: Jim Lo Scalzo/AFP via Getty Images; Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images; Drew Angerer/Getty Images; Bill Clark/CQ-Roll Call, Inc via Getty Images"
Opinion | The Slaughter in Buffalo Hasn’t Quieted the Great Replacement Caucus - The New York Times

Monday, May 16, 2022

Tucker Carlson is the "Osama bin Laden" of the murderous White replacement theory. He should be treated as he is, the spokesperson for a terrorist organization. (Fox News)

All the times Tucker Carlson has claimed the 'great replacement theory' is happening in the US | Watch

Replacement Theory, a Fringe Belief Fueled Online, Is Refashioned by G.O.P. - The New York Times

A Fringe Conspiracy Theory, Fostered Online, Is Refashioned by the G.O.P.

"Replacement theory, espoused by the suspect in the Buffalo massacre, has been embraced by some right-wing politicians and commentators.

The belief in replacement theory fueled the right-wing rally in Charlottesville, Va., in 2017 that erupted in violence.
Edu Bayer for The New York Times

Inside a Pittsburgh synagogue in 2018, a white man with a history of antisemitic internet posts gunned down 11 worshipers, blaming Jews for allowing immigrant “invaders” into the United States.

The next year, another white man, angry over what he called “the Hispanic invasion of Texas,” opened fire on shoppers at an El Paso Walmart, leaving 23 people dead, and later telling the police he had sought to kill Mexicans.

And in yet another deadly mass shooting, unfolding in Buffalo on Saturday, a heavily armed white man is accused of killing 10 people after targeting a supermarket on the city’s predominantly Black east side, writing in a lengthy screed posted online that the shoppers there came from a culture that sought to “ethnically replace my own people.”

Three shootings, three different targets — but all linked by one sprawling, ever-mutating belief now commonly known as replacement theory. At the extremes of American life, replacement theory — the notion that Western elites, sometimes manipulated by Jews, want to “replace” and disempower white Americans — has become an engine of racist terror, helping inspire a wave of mass shootings in recent years and fueling the 2017 right-wing rally in Charlottesville, Va., that erupted in violence.

But replacement theory, once confined to the digital fever swamps of Reddit message boards and semi-obscure white nationalist sites, has gone mainstream. In sometimes more muted forms, the fear it crystallizes — of a future America in which white people are no longer the numerical majority — has become a potent force in conservative media and politics, where the theory has been borrowed and remixed to attract audiences, retweets and small-dollar donations.

By his own account, the Buffalo suspect, Payton S. Gendron, followed a lonelier path to radicalization, immersing himself in replacement theory and other kinds of racist and antisemitic content easily found on internet forums, and casting Black Americans, like Hispanic immigrants, as “replacers” of white Americans. Yet in recent months, versions of the same ideas, sanded down and shorn of explicitly anti-Black and antisemitic themes, have become commonplace in the Republican Party — spoken aloud at congressional hearings, echoed in Republican campaign advertisements and embraced by a growing array of right-wing candidates and media personalities.

No public figure has promoted replacement theory more loudly or relentlessly than the Fox host Tucker Carlson, who has made elite-led demographic change a central theme of his show since joining Fox’s prime-time lineup in 2016. A Times investigation published this month showed that in more than 400 episodes of his show, Mr. Carlson has amplified the notion that Democratic politicians and other assorted elites want to force demographic change through immigration, and his producers sometimes scoured his show’s raw material from the same dark corners of the internet that the Buffalo suspect did.

“It’s not a pipeline. It’s an open sewer,” said Chris Stirewalt, a former Fox News political editor who was fired in 2020 after defending the network’s decision to call Arizona for then-candidate Joseph R. Biden, and who wrote a forthcoming book on how media outlets stoke anger to build audiences.

“Cable hosts looking for ratings and politicians in search of small-dollar donations can see which stories and narratives are drawing the most intense reactions among addicted users online,” Mr. Stirewalt said. Social media sites and internet forums, he added, are “like a focus group for pure outrage.”

In just the past year, Republican luminaries like Newt Gingrich, the former House speaker and Georgia congressman, and Elise Stefanik, the center-right New York congresswoman turned Trump acolyte (and third-ranking House Republican), have echoed replacement theory. Appearing on Fox, Mr. Gingrich declared that leftists were attempting to “drown” out “classic Americans.”

In September, Ms. Stefanik released a campaign ad on Facebook claiming that Democrats were plotting “a PERMANENT ELECTION INSURRECTION” by granting “amnesty” to illegal immigrants, which her ad said would “overthrow our current electorate and create a permanent liberal majority in Washington.” That same month, after the Anti-Defamation League, a civil rights group, called on Fox to fire Mr. Carlson, Representative Matt Gaetz, Republican of Florida, stood up both for the TV host and for replacement theory itself.

“@TuckerCarlson is CORRECT about Replacement Theory as he explains what is happening to America,” Mr. Gaetz wrote on Twitter. In a statement after the Buffalo shooting, Mr. Gaetz said that he had “never spoken of replacement theory in terms of race.”

One in three American adults now believe that an effort is underway “to replace native-born Americans with immigrants for electoral gains,” according to an Associated Press poll released this month. The poll also found that people who mostly watched right-wing media outlets like Fox News, One American News Network and Newsmax were more likely to believe in replacement theory than those who watched CNN or MSNBC.

Underlying all variations of replacement rhetoric is the growing diversity of the United States over the past decade, as the populations of people who identify as Hispanic and Asian surged and the number of people who said they were more than one race more than doubled, according to the Census Bureau.

Democratic politicians have generally been more supportive of immigration than Republicans, especially in the post-Trump era, and have pushed for more humane treatment of migrants and refugees. But the number of immigrants living in the United States illegally, which rose throughout the 1990s and 2000s, first began todecline under President Obama, a Democrat whom critics nicknamed the “deporter-in-chief.” There is no evidence of widespread voting by noncitizens and others who are ineligible. And while Mr. Biden has laid out plans to expand legal immigration, federal agencies have expelled more than 1.3 million migrants at the southwest border on his watch, while continuing some of the more restrictiveimmigration policies begun by former President Trump.

Throughout his presidency, Mr. Trump filled his public speeches and Twitter feed with often inflammatory, sometimes false rhetoric about immigrants, and he employed the term “invaders” in arguing for a border wall. Such language has been more broadly adopted by his most ardent supporters, such as Wendy Rogers, an Arizona state senator, who last summer said on Twitter, “We are being replaced and invaded” by illegal immigrants.

Efforts to reach Ms. Rogers on Sunday were unsuccessful. Reached by email, Mr. Gingrich declared replacement theory “insane,” adding that he was opposed to all anti-Semitism as well as “the white racist violence in Buffalo.”

Responding to criticism of Ms. Stefanik’s ad in the wake of the Buffalo shooting, a senior adviser for the congresswoman sent two responses: a sorrowful statement from Ms. Stefanik about the killing in Buffalo, and a fiery rejoinder from the adviser that “despite sickening and false reporting,” the congresswoman “has never advocated for any racist position or made a racist statement.”

Experts who study digital extremism and media described a complex interplay between the darker version of replacement theory that features on white nationalist or nativist websites, and the attenuated versions now echoing aroundthe conventional right, including on cable news and in pro-Trump media outlets.

“Someone like Carlson can introduce viewers to ideas that they then explore more fully online, searches that lead them into far-right spaces that either reinforce their existing views or radicalize them,” said Nicole Hemmer, a historian at Columbia University. “But someone like Carlson is also important because he legitimates those ideas, making them seem less radical when viewers see them.”

Measuring the extent of Mr. Carlson’s influence in spreading replacement theory may be impossible. But controversies around the host’s use of “replacement” rhetoric appear to have at least helped drive public curiosity about the idea. Until the Buffalo shootings, according to Google data, there had been three big spikes in Google searches for “replacement theory” or “great replacement,” a European variation popularized by the French writer Renaud Camus in recent years. Two followed the shootings in Christchurch, New Zealand, and El Paso, each covered by news outlets around the world. The third came in April 2021, when Mr. Carlson drew calls for Fox to fire him after defending the idea of demographic “replacement” on the network.

The Buffalo suspect appears to have immersed himself on web forums like 4chan and 8chan, where versions of replacement theory abound. That is also where the suspect, before setting out to slaughter Black shoppers in Buffalo, posted a 180-page compendium of racist arguments and internet memes.

He wrote that he got his news from Reddit. He began browsing 4chan in May 2020 “after extreme boredom,” he wrote, and quickly found a gateway to anti-Black and antisemitic replacement content. Reflecting the most extreme versions of replacement theory, the suspect deemed Black people, like immigrants, as “replacers”: people who “invade our lands, live on our soil, live on government support and attack and replace our people.”

According to a detailed analysis by the Anti-Defamation League provided to The Times, the suspect’s screed plagiarized almost two-thirds of another manifesto — the one left by an Australian man who in 2019 murdered dozens of Muslims as they prayed in two mosques in Christchurch. In some instances, the Buffalo suspect replaced the Christchurch killer’s references to Angela Merkel, the former German chancellor, with George Soros, the billionaire philanthropist. One page of the Australian’s document includes a purported count of Jews working at the senior levels of major media outlets, including Fox itself.

Oren Segal, vice president of the ADL’s Center on Extremism, said that the Buffalo suspect’s repurposing of the Christchurch manifesto to justify an attack on Black Americans “demonstrates the evolving and interactive nature of extremist propaganda.”

Mr. Carlson’s replacement rhetoric comes without the explicitly antisemitic elements common on racist web platforms. There is no indication that the Buffalo gunman watched Mr. Carlson’s show, or any other on Fox, and Mr. Carlson has denounced political violence even as he fans his viewers’ fears.

But there are also notable echoes between Mr. Carlson’s segments and the Buffalo suspect’s long litany of grievances, reflecting the blurry boundary between internet-fueled griping and lines of attack now common in conservative media and politics.

“Why is diversity said to be our greatest strength? Does anyone even ask why? It is spoken like a mantra and repeated ad infinitum,” the suspect wrote. The line nearly matches one of Mr. Carlson’s go-to attacks on Fox. “How, precisely, is diversity our strength?” Mr. Carlson asked in a 2018 segment, one of many in which he has hit on the question. “Since you’ve made this our new national motto, please be specific as you explain it.”

A Fox spokeswoman declined to comment.

Amy Spitalnick, the executive director of Integrity First for America, a group that waged a successful civil suit against organizers of the 2017 Charlottesville rally, argued that the broader promotion of replacement rhetoric normalized hate and emboldened violent extremists.

“This is the inevitable result of the normalization of white supremacist Replacement Theory in all its forms,” Ms. Spitalnick said. “Tucker Carlson may lead that charge — but he’s backed by Republican elected officials and other leaders eager to amplify this deadly conspiracy.”

Alan Feuer, Emily Cochrane, Zolan Kanno-Youngs, Chris Cameron and Azi Paybarah contributed reporting."

Replacement Theory, a Fringe Belief Fueled Online, Is Refashioned by G.O.P. - The New York Times

Sunday, May 15, 2022

The roots of the ‘great replacement theory’ believed to fuel Buffalo shooter

The roots of the ‘great replacement theory’ believed to fuel Buffalo shooter

A 1939 photo of Sen. Theodore G. Bilbo (D) of Mississippi. (Harris & Ewing Collection/Library of Congress)
“A 1939 photo of Sen. Theodore G. Bilbo (D) of Mississippi. (Harris & Ewing Collection/Library of Congress)

The man authorities say opened fire in a Buffalo grocery store Saturday, killing 10, appears to have left behind a white supremacist document centered on the idea of a plot to replace the White population with immigrants.

This far-right conspiracy theory, known as the “great replacement theory,” has inspired a lot of recent violence, including the 2019 Christchurch mosque shootings in New Zealand, where the shooter warned of “White genocide.” He later pleaded guilty to 51 murders, 40 attempted murders and engaging in a terrorist act.

Some of the torch-bearing “Unite the Right” demonstrators, including Ku Klux Klan members and neo-Nazis, who terrorized Charlottesville in 2017 were also motivated by the theory, which warns that an increase in the non-White population fueled by immigration will destroy White and Western civilization.

The Buffalo gunman, identified by authorities as Payton Gendron, an 18-year-old White man, is believed to have posted online a 180-page document arguing that White Americans were in danger of being replaced by people of color.

But while the great replacement theory has inspired horrific violence in the past five years, it’s a lot older than that. More than 70 years ago, a U.S. senator published a book warning of the same destruction of White civilization.

The scene at Tops grocery store on Jefferson Avenue in Buffalo, where police said a heavily armed 18-year-old White man entered the store in a predominantly Black neighborhood and shot 13 people, killing 10, on May 14. (Matt Burkhartt for The Washington Post)

Theodore G. Bilbo, a Democrat, had twice been governor of Mississippi before he served in the U.S. Senate from 1935 to 1947, when “the growing intolerance among many whites toward public racism and anti-Semitism” led to his fall, according to an account in the Journal of Mississippi History.

An equal-opportunity racist, he addressed some of his letters with slurs against Italians and Jews, depending on the recipient. But the bulk of his loathing and fear was reserved for Black Americans, as spelled out in his 1947 book “Take Your Choice: Separation or Mongrelization.”

A showboater and self-promoter, he began the book with this modest preface: “For nine years I have read, studied and analyzed practically all the records and everything written throughout the entire world on the subject of race relations, covering a period of close on to thirty thousand years.”

Bilbo saw an existential threat in the growing ranks of American-born descendants of enslaved Africans. His solution? Ship them back.

“The great civilizations of the ages have been produce[d] by the Caucasian race,” he wrote. When Black people moved in, he wrote, mighty societies such as ancient Egypt were destroyed and mongrel races were created. “The mongrel not only lacks the ability to create a civilization, but he cannot maintain a culture that he finds around him,” he wrote.

“A White America or a mongrel America — you must take your choice!”

Bilbo proclaimed in his book and in addresses to followers that he was “convinced, beyond every reasonable doubt, that our race is in jeopardy.” It was a fact, he said in one campaign speech, using racial slurs, that at “the present rate of interbreeding and miscegenation and intermarriage between the [Black people] and the Whites, that in nine generations, which is only 300 years, there’ll be no Whites, there’ll be no Blacks in this country. We’ll all be yellow.” Or brown, he added.

He rebutted experts who disputed any scientific basis for racism. Of Franz Boas, often called the father of American anthropology, he wrote, “For some reason which has never been publicized, this German Jew, a newly-arrived immigrant, wanted to destroy the racial stock which had carved this mighty Nation out of a wilderness.” Bilbo recommended deportation for another academic, a naturalized Italian immigrant, who suggested intermarriage could dissolve the color line.

Though he claimed “no hatred or prejudice against any human being” in the preface to his book, he went on to say that he “would rather see his race and his civilization blotted out with the atomic bomb than to see it slowly but surely destroyed in the maelstrom of miscegenation, interbreeding, intermarriage, and mongrelization.”

But the times were changing, even in Mississippi. Black veterans returning from fighting in World War II didn’t take well to efforts to bar them from voting in the United States. And the Allies’ fight against Adolf Hitler and antisemitism had led many Americans to turn their critical gaze to discrimination at home.

A fire-resistant blanket covers a statue of former Mississippi governor Theodore G. Bilbo in a storage room at the state Capitol in Jackson, Miss., on Feb. 9. The statue had been displayed in the building for decades, and the Mississippi House clerk said he authorized a crew to move it into storage in fall 2021 because of Bilbo's racist rhetoric. (Emily Wagster Pettus/AP)

As Robert L. Fleegler noted in the Journal of Mississippi History, most criticism of Bilbo in the press had come from liberal publications. But as Bilbo started campaigning for reelection in June 1946, the conservative and influential Saturday Evening Post published a cover story under the headline “Bilbo: America’s Worst Demagogue Runs Again.” The story called Bilbo “America’s most notorious merchant of hatred.”

The politician nicknamed “The Man” was fighting to retain his Senate seat. He told supporters that “the Negro Council in Chicago sent a telegram to Harry Truman, the president, saying to send the Army down to Mississippi and to see to it that these 100,000 [Black people] are gonna vote,” using a racist slur. He also urged “every red-blooded white man to use any means to keep the [Black people] away from the polls. And if you don’t know what that means, you are just plain dumb.” He fought fiercely against his critics, hurling anti-Jewish and anti-Black slurs at detractors in the press. He won the Democratic primary that July and ran unopposed in the general election.

But growing opposition to his race-baiting demagoguery continued to build. Bilbo’s admission in August 1946 on “Meet the Press” that he was a member of the Ku Klux Klan probably didn’t help.

There were calls to oust Bilbo, including from veterans groups and the Committee of Catholics for Human Rights, which called Bilbo’s conduct “a chilling deterrent to the world-wide belief that America is the symbol of democracy and human rights.” They were joined by politicians, including New York’s Democratic senators and a state senator whose son was killed in World War II, who said, “I hate and despise those bigots” like Bilbo.

In March 1946, Republican conservative leader Sen. Robert Taft of Ohio called Bilbo “a disgrace to the Senate.”

On Sept. 19, 1946, an interracial group of Mississippians filed a complaint with the U.S. Senate Committee to Investigate Campaign Expenditures, asking that Bilbo be removed from office.

The committee “heard from more than 100 witnesses — two-thirds of them Black — who outlined local election practices that systematically restricted black registration and voting,” according to a Senate history. Witnesses told of being turned away, threatened with pistols, beaten and arrested.

A slim majority of the committee found in favor of Bilbo, however, and blamed some of Bilbo’s anti-Black campaign on concerns about “outside agitators,” including the national media.

But Bilbo’s opponents had another card to play.

A second investigation by the Senate war investigating subcommittee heard testimony on charges that Bilbo had helped construction firms win government contracts and had accepted gifts in return that included a Cadillac, a swimming pool and the “excavation of a lake to create an island for his home,” according to a Senate summary.

During the investigation, questions also arose about whether Bilbo was pocketing money in return for allowing a drug addict access to morphine. Bilbo had obtained consent from the Federal Bureau of Narcotics to allow a Mississippi doctor to prescribe the drug. The drug recipient told an Internal Revenue Service special agent that he paid Bilbo $1,000 for the favor, according to the New York Times.

In January 1947, with Republicans in control of the Senate, a fight ensued over whether Bilbo would be allowed to take his seat, with Southern Democrats threatening to stop the Senate from organizing if he were barred.

Then fate intervened. Senate Minority Leader Alben Barkley (D-Ky.) announced that Bilbo would return to Mississippi for oral cancer surgery. He died on Aug. 21, 1947, without retaking his Senate seat.

Bilbo’s career built on racism and anti-immigrant bigotry had ended. But the bigotry lingers on.

A version of this story ran on Nov. 15, 2021, under the headline “Long before Charlottesville, ‘great replacement theory’ found its champion in a racist senator.”

Martha M. Hamilton is a former reporter, editor and columnist for The Washington Post and in 2018 was part of the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists team that won the Pulitzer Prize for the Panama Papers.“